Tasmania Tigers

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Tasmania Tigers

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The Tasmanian Tiger earned its name because of the distinctive tiger-like stripes along its lower back and tail, which were more reminiscent of a hyena than a big cat.

Though this "tiger" was a marsupial, complete with a characteristic marsupial pouch in which the females gestated their young, and thus was more closely related to wombats, koala bears, and kangaroos.

Another common nickname, the Tasmanian Wolf, is a bit more relevant, given this animal's resemblance to a large dog. If "Tasmanian Tiger" is a deceptive name, where does that leave us?

Well, the genus and species name of this extinct predator is Thylacinus cynocephalus literally, Greek for "dog-headed pouched mammal" , but naturalists and paleontologists more commonly refer to it as the Thylacine.

If that word sounds vaguely familiar, it's because it contains one of the roots of Thylacoleo , the "marsupial lion," a saber-toothed tiger -like predator that vanished from Australia about 40, years ago.

About 2, years ago, yielding to pressure from indigenous human settlers, Australia's Thylacine population dwindled rapidly. The last holdouts of the breed persisted on the island of Tasmania, off the Australian coast, until the late 19th century, when the Tasmanian government put a bounty on thylacines because of their predilection for eating sheep, the lifeblood of the local economy.

The last Tasmanian Tiger died in captivity in , but it may yet be possible to de-extinct the breed by recovering some fragments of its DNA.

In most marsupial species, only the females possess pouches, which they use to incubate and protect their prematurely born young as opposed to placental mammals, which produce their fetuses in an internal womb.

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In , it was separated out into its own genus, Thylacinus , by Temminck. This thylacinid was much smaller than its more recent relatives.

An example of convergent evolution , the thylacine showed many similarities to the members of the dog family, Canidae , of the Northern Hemisphere: sharp teeth, powerful jaws, raised heels and the same general body form.

Since the thylacine filled the same ecological niche in Australia as the dog family did elsewhere, it developed many of the same features.

Despite this, as a marsupial it is unrelated to any of the Northern Hemisphere placental mammal predators. They are easy to tell from a true dog because of the stripes on the back but the skeleton is harder to distinguish.

Zoology students at Oxford had to identify zoological specimens as part of the final exam. Word soon got around that, if ever a 'dog' skull was given, it was safe to identify it as Thylacinus on the grounds that anything as obvious as a dog skull had to be a catch.

Then one year the examiners, to their credit, double bluffed and put in a real dog skull. The easiest way to tell the difference is by the two prominent holes in the palate bone, which are characteristic of marsupials generally.

The thylacine is a basal member of the Dasyuromorphia along with numbats , dunnarts , wambengers , and quolls.

The cladogram follows: [35]. Thylacinus thylacines. Myrmecobius numbat. Sminthopsis dunnarts. Phascogale wambengers.

Dasyurus quolls. The only recorded species of Thylacinus , a genus that resembles the dogs and foxes of the family Canidae , the animal was a predatory marsupial that existed on mainland Australia during the Holocene epoch and observed by Europeans on the island of Tasmania; the species is known as the Tasmanian tiger for the striped markings of the pelage.

Descriptions of the thylacine come from preserved specimens, fossil records, skins and skeletal remains, and black and white photographs and film of the animal both in captivity and from the field.

The thylacine resembled a large, short-haired dog with a stiff tail which smoothly extended from the body in a way similar to that of a kangaroo.

Thylacines, uniquely for marsupials, have largely cartilaginous epipubic bones with a highly reduced osseous element. Its yellow-brown coat featured 15 to 20 distinctive dark stripes across its back, rump and the base of its tail, [42] which earned the animal the nickname "tiger".

The stripes were more pronounced in younger specimens, fading as the animal got older. Colouration varied from light fawn to a dark brown; the belly was cream-coloured.

It is likely to have relied on sight and sound when hunting instead. The thylacine was able to open its jaws to an unusual extent: up to 80 degrees.

The jaws were muscular, and had 46 teeth, but studies show the Thylacine jaw was too weak to kill sheep. Fusion may have occurred as the animal reached full maturity.

The tail tapered towards the tip. In juveniles, the tip of the tail had a ridge. Males had a scrotal pouch, unique amongst the Australian marsupials, [50] into which they could withdraw their scrotal sac for protection.

Thylacine footprints could be distinguished from other native or introduced animals; unlike foxes, cats, dogs, wombats or Tasmanian devils , thylacines had a very large rear pad and four obvious front pads, arranged in almost a straight line.

Their claws were non-retractable. The cast shows the plantar pad in more detail and shows that the plantar pad is tri-lobal in that it exhibits three distinctive lobes.

It is a single plantar pad divided by three deep grooves. The distinctive plantar pad shape along with the asymmetrical nature of the foot makes it quite different from animals such as dogs or foxes.

This cast dates back to the early s and is part of the Museum of Victoria's thylacine collection. The thylacine was noted as having a stiff and somewhat awkward gait , making it unable to run at high speed.

It could also perform a bipedal hop, in a fashion similar to a kangaroo—demonstrated at various times by captive specimens. Observers of the animal in the wild and in captivity noted that it would growl and hiss when agitated, often accompanied by a threat-yawn.

During hunting it would emit a series of rapidly repeated guttural cough-like barks described as "yip-yap", "cay-yip" or "hop-hop-hop" , probably for communication between the family pack members.

It also had a long whining cry, probably for identification at distance, and a low snuffling noise used for communication between family members.

It is possible that the thylacine, like its relative, the Tasmanian devil, gave off an odour when agitated.

The thylacine probably preferred the dry eucalyptus forests, wetlands, and grasslands of mainland Australia.

Proof of the animal's existence in mainland Australia came from a desiccated carcass that was discovered in a cave in the Nullarbor Plain in Western Australia in ; carbon dating revealed it to be around 3, years old.

In Tasmania it preferred the woodlands of the midlands and coastal heath , which eventually became the primary focus of British settlers seeking grazing land for their livestock.

Little is known about the behaviour of the thylacine. A few observations were made of the animal in captivity, but only limited, anecdotal evidence exists of the animal's behaviour in the wild.

Most observations were made during the day whereas the thylacine was naturally nocturnal. Those observations, made in the twentieth century, may have been atypical as they were of a species already under the stresses that would soon lead to its extinction.

Some behavioural characteristics have been extrapolated from the behaviour of its close relative, the Tasmanian devil.

The thylacine was a nocturnal and crepuscular hunter, spending the daylight hours in small caves or hollow tree trunks in a nest of twigs, bark or fern fronds.

It tended to retreat to the hills and forest for shelter during the day and hunted in the open heath at night. Early observers noted that the animal was typically shy and secretive, with awareness of the presence of humans and generally avoiding contact, though it occasionally showed inquisitive traits.

There is evidence for at least some year-round breeding cull records show joeys discovered in the pouch at all times of the year , although the peak breeding season was in winter and spring.

Early pouch young were hairless and blind, but they had their eyes open and were fully furred by the time they left the pouch. In , Newton et al.

This study revealed new information on the biology of the thylacine, including the growth of its limbs and when it developed its 'dog-like' appearance.

It was found that two of the thylacine young in the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery TMAG were misidentified and of another species, reducing the number of known pouch young specimens to 11 worldwide.

The thylacine was carnivorous. Prey is believed to have included kangaroos , wallabies and wombats , birds and small animals such as potoroos and possums.

One prey animal may have been the once common Tasmanian emu. There is some controversy over the preferred prey size of the thylacine.

A study by the University of New South Wales using advanced computer modelling indicated that the thylacine had surprisingly feeble jaws.

Thus, some researchers believe thylacines only ate small animals such as bandicoots and possums, putting them into direct competition with the Tasmanian devil and the tiger quoll.

However, an earlier study showed that the thylacine had a bite force quotient of , similar to that of most quolls; in modern mammalian predators, such a high bite force is almost always associated with predators which routinely take prey as large, or larger than, themselves.

Analysis of the skeletal frame and observations of the thylacine in captivity suggest that it preferred to single out a target animal and pursue that animal until it was exhausted: a pursuit predator.

However, trappers reported it as an ambush predator : [42] the animal may have hunted in small family groups, with the main group herding prey in the general direction of an individual waiting in ambush.

In fact, the predatory behaviour of the thylacine was probably closer to ambushing felids than to large pursuit canids. Its stomach was muscular, and could distend to allow the animal to eat large amounts of food at one time, probably an adaptation to compensate for long periods when hunting was unsuccessful and food scarce.

In captivity, thylacines were fed a wide variety of foods, including dead rabbits and wallabies as well as beef, mutton, horse, and occasionally poultry.

In , Berns and Ashwell published comparative cortical maps of thylacine and Tasmanian devil brains, showing that the thylacine had a larger, more modularised basal ganglion.

The authors associated these differences with the thylacine's predatory lifestyle. By the beginning of the 20th century, the increasing rarity of thylacines led to increased demand for captive specimens by zoos around the world.

However, reliable accounts of thylacine survival in South Australia though confined to the "thinly settled districts" and Flinders Ranges and New South Wales Blue Mountains exist from as late as the s, from both indigenous and European sources.

A study proposes that the arrival of the dingoes may have led to the extinction of the Tasmanian devil, the thylacine, and the Tasmanian native hen in mainland Australia because the dingo might have competed with the thylacine and devil in preying on the native hen.

However, the study also proposes that an increase in the human population that gathered pace around 4, years ago may have led to this. However, a counter-argument is that the two species were not in direct competition with one another because the dingo primarily hunts during the day , whereas it is thought that the thylacine hunted mostly at night.

Nonetheless, recent morphological examinations of dingo and thylacine skulls show that although the dingo had a weaker bite, its skull could resist greater stresses, allowing it to pull down larger prey than the thylacine.

The thylacine was less versatile in its diet than the omnivorous dingo. The adoption of the dingo as a hunting companion by the indigenous peoples would have put the thylacine under increased pressure.

Although the thylacine was extinct on mainland Australia, it survived into the s on the island state of Tasmania.

At the time of the first European settlement, the heaviest distributions were in the northeast, northwest and north-midland regions of the state.

This led to the establishment of bounty schemes in an attempt to control their numbers. In all, they paid out 2, bounties, but it is thought that many more thylacines were killed than were claimed for.

Its extinction is popularly attributed to these relentless efforts by farmers and bounty hunters. However, it is likely that multiple factors led to its decline and eventual extinction, including competition with wild dogs introduced by European settlers, [88] erosion of its habitat, the concurrent extinction of prey species, and a distemper -like disease that affected many captive specimens at the time.

But the marsupi-carnivore disease, with its dramatic effect on individual thylacine longevity and juvenile mortality, came far too soon, and spread far too quickly.

Whatever the reason, the animal had become extremely rare in the wild by the late s. Despite the fact that the thylacine was believed by many to be responsible for attacks on sheep, in the Tasmanian Advisory Committee for Native Fauna recommended a reserve similar to the Savage River National Park to protect any remaining thylacines, with potential sites of suitable habitat including the Arthur - Pieman area of western Tasmania.

The last known thylacine to be killed in the wild was shot in by Wilf Batty, a farmer from Mawbanna in the state's northwest. The animal, believed to have been a male, had been seen around Batty's house for several weeks.

Work in examined the relationship of the genetic diversity of the thylacines before their extinction.

The results indicated that the last of the thylacines in Australia, on top of the threats from dingoes, had limited genetic diversity, due to their complete geographic isolation from mainland Australia.

This photo by Henry Burrell of a thylacine with a chicken was widely distributed and may have helped secure the animal's reputation as a poultry thief.

In fact the image is cropped to hide the fenced run and housing, and analysis by one researcher has concluded that this thylacine is a mounted specimen, posed for the camera.

The photograph may even have involved photo manipulation. The last captive thylacine, later referred to as "Benjamin", was trapped in the Florentine Valley by Elias Churchill in , and sent to the Hobart Zoo where it lived for three years.

The thylacine died on 7 September It is believed to have died as the result of neglect—locked out of its sheltered sleeping quarters, it was exposed to a rare occurrence of extreme Tasmanian weather: extreme heat during the day and freezing temperatures at night.

Fleay was bitten on the buttock whilst shooting the film. Frank Darby, who claimed to have been a keeper at Hobart Zoo, suggested "Benjamin" as having been the animal's pet name in a newspaper article of May No documentation exists to suggest that it ever had a pet name, and Alison Reid de facto curator at the zoo and Michael Sharland publicist for the zoo denied that Frank Darby had ever worked at the zoo or that the name "Benjamin" was ever used for the animal.

Darby also appears to be the source for the claim that the last thylacine was a male. The sex of the last captive thylacine has been a point of debate since its death at the Beaumaris Zoo in Hobart, Tasmania.

In , a detailed examination of a single frame from the motion film footage confirmed that the thylacine was male. When frame III is enlarged the scrotum can be seen, confirming the thylacine to be male.

By enhancing the frame, the outline of the individual testes is discernable. After the thylacine's death the zoo expected that it would soon find a replacement, [92] and "Benjamin"'s death was not reported on in the media at the time.

Official protection of the species by the Tasmanian government was introduced on 10 July , 59 days before the last known specimen died in captivity.

A thylacine was reportedly shot and photographed at Mawbanna in A sighting from a helicopter could not be confirmed on the ground.

An animal killed in Sandy Cape at night in was tentatively identified as a thylacine. Searches by Dr. Eric Guiler and David Fleay in the northwest of Tasmania found footprints and scats that may have belonged to the animal, heard vocalisations matching the description of those of the thylacine, and collected anecdotal evidence from people reported to have sighted the animal.

Despite the searches, no conclusive evidence was found to point to its continued existence in the wild. Bob Brown , which concluded without finding any evidence of the thylacine's existence.

The thylacine held the status of endangered species until the s. International standards at the time stated that an animal could not be declared extinct until 50 years had passed without a confirmed record.

Since no definitive proof of the thylacine's existence in the wild had been obtained for more than 50 years, it met that official criterion and was declared extinct by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in [3] and by the Tasmanian government in The Department of Conservation and Land Management recorded reports of sightings of the Thylacine in Western Australia from to In , a researcher with the Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service , Hans Naarding, observed what he believed to be a thylacine for three minutes during the night at a site near Arthur River in northwestern Tasmania.

The sighting led to an extensive year-long government-funded search.

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Tasmanian tigers were meat eaters. They hunted kangaroos , sheep and wallabies, reportedly, though there is little research into the eating habits of these animals.

These animals could open their mouths almost 90 degrees, according to the Encyclopedia Britannica. The authors thought that the animal would have hunted for small marsupials like wallabies and possums.

Like other marsupials, Tasmanian tigers had pouches. Their pouches' opening faced their hind legs, though. In her pouch, a female could carry two to four hairless babies at once.

As the babies grew, the pouch expanded to accommodate them. After the babies became older, the mother would leave the young in a lair, such as a cave or hollowed log, to go hunting.

Thylacines likely lived five to seven years in the wild, though they lived up to nine years in captivity.

It is estimated there were around 5, thylacines in Tasmania when Europeans settled in the area, according to National Museum Australia.

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